What are school children in Europe being taught about hygiene and antibiotic use?

Donna M. Lecky, Cliodna A.M. McNulty, Niels Adriaenssens, Tereza Koprivová Herotová, Jette Holt, Pia Touboul, Kyriakoula Merakou, Raffaella Koncan, Anna Olczak-Pienkowska, António Brito Avô, José Campos, David Farrell, Patty Kostkova, Julius Weinberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


e-Bug is a pan-European antibiotic and hygiene teaching resource that aims to reinforce awareness in school children of microbes, prudent antibiotic use, hygiene and the transmission of infection. Prior to the production of the resource, it was essential to examine the educational structure across each partner country and assess what school children were being taught on these topics. A questionnaire was devised for distribution to each European partner (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain), exploring their educational structure and examining educational resources or campaigns currently available. From the data collected it was evident that the majority of European schools have structured hand hygiene practices in place from a young age. The curricula in all countries cover the topic of human health and hygiene, but limited information is provided on antibiotics and their prudent use. School educational resources that link to the national curriculum and implement National Advice to the Public campaigns in the classroom are limited. The Microbes en question mobile health education campaign in France is an example of a successful children's education campaign and an innovative programme. Evaluation of the impact of school education on attitude and change of behaviour is also limited throughout many European countries. Not enough is currently being done across Europe to educate school children on the importance of appropriate antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. The data from this research were used to develop e-Bug, a European Union-funded antibiotic and hygiene teaching resource.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue numbersuppl_5
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011


  • antibiotic resistance
  • education
  • national curriculum


Dive into the research topics of 'What are school children in Europe being taught about hygiene and antibiotic use?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this