Upper limb rehabilitation interventions using virtual reality for people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

Amy Webster*, Matthieu Poyade, Scott Rooney, Lorna Paul

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
345 Downloads (Pure)


BackgroundResearch on Virtual Reality (VR) based motor rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly growing in popularity, although few studies have focused on the upper limb (UL). The aims of this review were to investigate the effect of VR interventions on UL function in people with MS and determine if the type of VR intervention influences intervention effect.MethodFive databases (IEEE Xplore, MEDLINE, ProQuest Central (Health & Medical Collection), Science Direct and Web of Science Core Collection) were searched using keywords that relating to MS, VR and UL.ResultsTen articles were included, six randomised controlled trials, three cohort studies and one pilot observational study. Both commercial and custom VR technologies were used in interventions, along with combination approaches using robotics, electrical stimulation and occupational therapy. Using the Nine Hole Peg Test, two studies found significant improvements within groups, one found that VR was more effective than another gaming approach. Significant improvements in other UL measures were in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for the proximal arm; handgrip; perceived strength; Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test; Wolf Motor Function Test; active range of motion and trajectory measures after VR intervention. There were conflicting results regarding if VR was more effective than conventional approaches.ConclusionThere is therefore some evidence that VR is effective in improving motor function in the UL, however, there is no clear consensus on which VR based approaches are the most effective, or the optimum intervention duration and intensity. Moreover, as many of the studies had non-immersive approaches it is hard to determine how effective immersion based approaches maybe in such specific context.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102610
JournalMultiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
Early online date31 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • multiple sclerosis
  • virtual reality
  • upper limb
  • rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Upper limb rehabilitation interventions using virtual reality for people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this