Treatment of selected pharmaceuticals by ferrate(VI): Performance, kinetic studies and identification of oxidation products

Zhengwei Zhou, Jia-Qian Jiang

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Abstract

The performance of ferrate(VI) in treating sulfamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ) and bezafibrate (BZF) in test solutions containing the four compounds was investigated. A series of jar-test experiments was performed on a bench-scale at pH 6-9 and at a ferrate(VI) dose of 1-5mg Fe/L. The results suggested that ferrate(VI) can effectively remove SMX, DCF and CBZ from the test solutions, with greater than 80% removal under optimum conditions. However, the removal efficiency of BZF was very low, less than 25% under the studied conditions. Increasing the dose of ferrate(VI) improved the treatment performance, while the influence of solution pH on ferrate(VI) performance varied among the different target compounds. Ferrate(VI) demonstrated the highest reactivity with SMX at pH 8 and pH 9 (20°C), with apparent second-order rate constants of 360±17M-1s-1 and 1.26±0.02M-1s-1, respectively. However, BZF showed the lowest removal by ferrate(VI) with the smallest rate constants (less than 0.5M-1s-1) at pH 8 and pH 9. Furthermore, a number of oxidation products (OPs) of SMX, DCF and CBZ during ferrate(VI) oxidation were detected by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and their degradation pathways were tentatively proposed. No OPs of BZF were detected during ferrate(VI) oxidation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-45
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Volume106
Early online date1 Jul 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2015

Keywords

  • Ferrate(VI)
  • Oxidation products (OP)
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Rate constants
  • Waste water treatment

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