Time to recharge

Robert Armstrong*, Alastair Robertson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Portable electronic devices make up almost half of manufacturing output in the electronics industry. However, as researchers strive to make these devices ever smaller, the battery is the main obstacle to miniaturization. Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries used to be favored. However, environmental concerns over the use of cadmium led to the European Commission to propose ban on all nickel-cadmium batteries by 2008. At present, manufacturers are looking for possible replacements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-41
Number of pages4
JournalChemistry in Britain
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2002


  • cadmium
  • nickel cadmium batteries
  • secondary batteries


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