The ‘Playing Together, Apart Framework’: a framework for communication in networked music performance

Miriam Iorwerth, Don Knox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The 'Playing Together, Apart Framework' is a framework for understanding communication between musicians in networked music performance (NMP). Previous research has largely focused on technical issues such as latency and synchronization, and this framework aims to extend this research into further understanding of the experiences of, and the communication between, musicians in NMP, and the factors affecting this. The framework is based on duo musicians, working in informal NMP situations, playing acoustic instruments. The framework shows the audio and video communication paths, and the influences on both the transmission and reception elements of the communication chain in NMP. General issues in NMP, such as the rhythmic content of the music, the expertise and experience of the musicians when dividing attention, the use of video and the socio-emotional and professional relationships between musicians, are examined in further detail. This framework is proposed as a basis for further research into NMP, and for expansion and development by researchers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-164
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Music, Technology and Education
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2024


  • networked music
  • communication
  • performance
  • ensemble
  • musicians' experience
  • social isolation
  • internet performance
  • online music
  • musicians’ experience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Music
  • Computer Science Applications


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