Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in its idiopathic and familial forms occurs more frequently in females than in males (>2:1 incidence ratio). Experimentally, however, female gender and oestrogens can both protect against and exacerbate PAH. This review will discuss our current understanding of the influence of sex hormones on the development of PAH.
- pulmonary arterial hypertension
- sex hormones