The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots

Marie Genet, Alexia Stokes, Franck Salin, Slobodan B. Mickovski, Thierry Fourcaud, Jean-Francois Dumail, Rens van Beek

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Root tensile strength is an important factor to consider when choosing suitable species for reinforcing soil on unstable slopes. Tensile strength has been found to increase with decreasing root diameter, however, it is not known how this phenomenon occurs. We carried out tensile tests on roots 0.2-12.0 mm in diameter of three conifer and two broadleaf species, in order to determine the relationship between tensile strength and diameter. Two species, Pinus pinaster Ait. and Castanea sativa Mill., were then chosen for a quantitative analysis of root cellulose content. Cellulose is responsible for tensile strength in wood due to its microfibrillar structure. Results showed that in all species, a significant power relationship existed between tensile strength and root diameter, with a sharp increase of tensile strength in roots with a diameter 1.0 mm, Fagus sylvatica L. was the most resistant to failure, followed by Picea abies L. and C. sativa., P pinaster and Pinus nigra Arnold roots were the least resistant in tension for the same diameter class. Extremely high values of strength (132-201 MPa) were found in P abies, C. saliva and P pinaster, for the smallest roots (0.4 mm in diameter). The power relationship between tensile strength and root diameter cannot only be explained by a scaling effect typical of that found in fracture mechanics. Therefore, this relationship could be due to changes in cellulose content as the percentage of cellulose was also observed to increase with decreasing root diameter and increasing tensile strength in both P pinaster and C. saliva.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the First International Conference on Rco-Engineering
EditorsAlexia Stokes, Ionnis Spanos
PublisherSpringer
Pages3-13
Number of pages11
Volume103
ISBN (Print)9781402055928
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007

Publication series

NameDevelopments in Plant and Soil Sciences

Fingerprint

tensile strength
cellulose
Castanea sativa
saliva
Pinus nigra
Pinus pinaster
Fagus sylvatica
Abies
strength (mechanics)
mechanics
Picea abies
conifers
quantitative analysis

Keywords

  • tree roots
  • tensile strength
  • cellulose content
  • root diameter

Cite this

Genet, M., Stokes, A., Salin, F., Mickovski, S. B., Fourcaud, T., Dumail, J-F., & Beek, R. V. (2007). The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots. In A. Stokes, & I. Spanos (Eds.), Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Rco-Engineering (Vol. 103, pp. 3-13). (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences). Springer.
Genet, Marie ; Stokes, Alexia ; Salin, Franck ; Mickovski, Slobodan B. ; Fourcaud, Thierry ; Dumail, Jean-Francois ; Beek, Rens van. / The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots. Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Rco-Engineering. editor / Alexia Stokes ; Ionnis Spanos. Vol. 103 Springer, 2007. pp. 3-13 (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences).
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title = "The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots",
abstract = "Root tensile strength is an important factor to consider when choosing suitable species for reinforcing soil on unstable slopes. Tensile strength has been found to increase with decreasing root diameter, however, it is not known how this phenomenon occurs. We carried out tensile tests on roots 0.2-12.0 mm in diameter of three conifer and two broadleaf species, in order to determine the relationship between tensile strength and diameter. Two species, Pinus pinaster Ait. and Castanea sativa Mill., were then chosen for a quantitative analysis of root cellulose content. Cellulose is responsible for tensile strength in wood due to its microfibrillar structure. Results showed that in all species, a significant power relationship existed between tensile strength and root diameter, with a sharp increase of tensile strength in roots with a diameter 1.0 mm, Fagus sylvatica L. was the most resistant to failure, followed by Picea abies L. and C. sativa., P pinaster and Pinus nigra Arnold roots were the least resistant in tension for the same diameter class. Extremely high values of strength (132-201 MPa) were found in P abies, C. saliva and P pinaster, for the smallest roots (0.4 mm in diameter). The power relationship between tensile strength and root diameter cannot only be explained by a scaling effect typical of that found in fracture mechanics. Therefore, this relationship could be due to changes in cellulose content as the percentage of cellulose was also observed to increase with decreasing root diameter and increasing tensile strength in both P pinaster and C. saliva.",
keywords = "tree roots, tensile strength, cellulose content, root diameter",
author = "Marie Genet and Alexia Stokes and Franck Salin and Mickovski, {Slobodan B.} and Thierry Fourcaud and Jean-Francois Dumail and Beek, {Rens van}",
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Genet, M, Stokes, A, Salin, F, Mickovski, SB, Fourcaud, T, Dumail, J-F & Beek, RV 2007, The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots. in A Stokes & I Spanos (eds), Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Rco-Engineering. vol. 103, Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, Springer, pp. 3-13.

The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots. / Genet, Marie; Stokes, Alexia; Salin, Franck; Mickovski, Slobodan B.; Fourcaud, Thierry; Dumail, Jean-Francois; Beek, Rens van.

Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Rco-Engineering. ed. / Alexia Stokes; Ionnis Spanos. Vol. 103 Springer, 2007. p. 3-13 (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots

AU - Genet, Marie

AU - Stokes, Alexia

AU - Salin, Franck

AU - Mickovski, Slobodan B.

AU - Fourcaud, Thierry

AU - Dumail, Jean-Francois

AU - Beek, Rens van

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - Root tensile strength is an important factor to consider when choosing suitable species for reinforcing soil on unstable slopes. Tensile strength has been found to increase with decreasing root diameter, however, it is not known how this phenomenon occurs. We carried out tensile tests on roots 0.2-12.0 mm in diameter of three conifer and two broadleaf species, in order to determine the relationship between tensile strength and diameter. Two species, Pinus pinaster Ait. and Castanea sativa Mill., were then chosen for a quantitative analysis of root cellulose content. Cellulose is responsible for tensile strength in wood due to its microfibrillar structure. Results showed that in all species, a significant power relationship existed between tensile strength and root diameter, with a sharp increase of tensile strength in roots with a diameter 1.0 mm, Fagus sylvatica L. was the most resistant to failure, followed by Picea abies L. and C. sativa., P pinaster and Pinus nigra Arnold roots were the least resistant in tension for the same diameter class. Extremely high values of strength (132-201 MPa) were found in P abies, C. saliva and P pinaster, for the smallest roots (0.4 mm in diameter). The power relationship between tensile strength and root diameter cannot only be explained by a scaling effect typical of that found in fracture mechanics. Therefore, this relationship could be due to changes in cellulose content as the percentage of cellulose was also observed to increase with decreasing root diameter and increasing tensile strength in both P pinaster and C. saliva.

AB - Root tensile strength is an important factor to consider when choosing suitable species for reinforcing soil on unstable slopes. Tensile strength has been found to increase with decreasing root diameter, however, it is not known how this phenomenon occurs. We carried out tensile tests on roots 0.2-12.0 mm in diameter of three conifer and two broadleaf species, in order to determine the relationship between tensile strength and diameter. Two species, Pinus pinaster Ait. and Castanea sativa Mill., were then chosen for a quantitative analysis of root cellulose content. Cellulose is responsible for tensile strength in wood due to its microfibrillar structure. Results showed that in all species, a significant power relationship existed between tensile strength and root diameter, with a sharp increase of tensile strength in roots with a diameter 1.0 mm, Fagus sylvatica L. was the most resistant to failure, followed by Picea abies L. and C. sativa., P pinaster and Pinus nigra Arnold roots were the least resistant in tension for the same diameter class. Extremely high values of strength (132-201 MPa) were found in P abies, C. saliva and P pinaster, for the smallest roots (0.4 mm in diameter). The power relationship between tensile strength and root diameter cannot only be explained by a scaling effect typical of that found in fracture mechanics. Therefore, this relationship could be due to changes in cellulose content as the percentage of cellulose was also observed to increase with decreasing root diameter and increasing tensile strength in both P pinaster and C. saliva.

KW - tree roots

KW - tensile strength

KW - cellulose content

KW - root diameter

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9781402055928

VL - 103

T3 - Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences

SP - 3

EP - 13

BT - Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability

A2 - Stokes, Alexia

A2 - Spanos, Ionnis

PB - Springer

ER -

Genet M, Stokes A, Salin F, Mickovski SB, Fourcaud T, Dumail J-F et al. The influence of cellulose content on tensile strength in tree roots. In Stokes A, Spanos I, editors, Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Rco-Engineering. Vol. 103. Springer. 2007. p. 3-13. (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences).