The effects of luxury restaurant environments on diners’ emotions and loyalty: incorporating diner expectations into an extended Mehrabian-Russell model

Annie Chen, Norman Peng, Kuang-peng Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: Consumers dine at luxury restaurants for reasons beyond fulfilling basic needs. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to diners’ emotions and loyalty toward luxury restaurants. This paper examines diners’ luxury restaurant consumption behavior by incorporating diner expectations into a modified Mehrabian–Russell model.
Design/methodology/approach: To examine the proposed six hypotheses, qualitative and quantitative studies were performed. Following exploratory qualitative research, 310 consumers who dined at Taiwan’s five-star hotel restaurants were recruited for the main study. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.
Findings: The results show that restaurants’ stimuli influence diners’ positive and negative emotions (organisms), which, in turn, affect their loyalty toward luxury restaurants (responses). Furthermore, customers with different levels of expectation react differently to stimuli.
Practical implications: This study offers new empirical support for the proposition that diner expectation plays a role in building customer loyalty and thereby shades both theoretical and managerial understanding of the luxury restaurant consumption process.
Originality/value: This study conceptualizes diners’ loyalty toward luxury restaurants (e.g., revisiting and recommending luxury restaurants) by examining the influence of restaurants’ stimuli, diners’ emotions, and customers’ expectations toward luxury restaurants. Additionally, this study offers some managerial implications for practitioners.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-260
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2015



  • luxury restaurants
  • diner expectations
  • diners' emotions
  • diners' loyalty
  • restaurant environment

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