The effects of high velocity resistance training on bone mineral density in older adults: a systematic review

Inaya Haque, Thomas Z. Schlacht, Dawn A. Skelton*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

Objective:

To determine the effects of high velocity resistance training (HVRT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using five databases. Records were screened by two independent reviewers. Inclusion criteria: adults ≥50 years old, HVRT defined as rapid concentric and slow eccentric phase against an external load, control group and/or other intervention group, BMD measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and ≥ 6 months.

Results: 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. 12 were original intervention studies (8 RCTs) with n=1203 people. 13 papers were follow up studies of these original interventions. Heterogeneity of studies meant no meta-analysis was performed. Moderate evidence suggests a small statistically significant effect of HVRT on BMD in older adults at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck ranging from 0.9% to 5.4%. BMD measurements significantly decreased post-intervention in follow-up studies where the interventions had ceased. Dose-response of HVRT was shown to positively impact BMD when ≥2 sessions per week are completed.

Conclusions: HVRT plays a role in increasing BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Doses of higher intensity exercise performed ≥ 2 sessions per week will yield the most skeletal benefits, and if exercise is stopped for > 6 months, benefits achieved may be lost
Original languageEnglish
Article number116986
Number of pages14
JournalBone
Volume179
Early online date7 Dec 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • High velocity resistance training
  • Explosive concentric contraction
  • Bone mineral density
  • Review
  • Dual x-ray absorptiometry
  • Older adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Histology

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