The effect of changing colours on central crowding reading

Abdullah Alsalhi, Nadia Northway, Abd Elaziz Mohamed Elmadina*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Background: Crowding can be defined as the impaired recognition of closely spaced objects. Changing colour and lighting enhance visual comfort and perceptual troubles that influence impaired vision reading. 

Objective: The current study was aimed to investigate the impact of changing the flanker distance and unflanked targets with colours on central crowding reading for subjects with their distant best correction (BCVA) equal to or greater than 6/6. 

Methodology: Six native English speakers (age: 18–38) who participated in a cross-section intervention study were asked to identify the orientation of the letter E (flanked or unflanked) in different directions around the central target in different colours (red, green, blue and black) on a white background. 

Results: Different colours affect central crowding (p<0.05). However, the central crowding reading of red was not affected by changing flankers (P > 0.05). 

Conclusion: Central reading crowding is visual crowding. Different colours affect central crowding. However, the central crowding reading in red was not affected by changes in flankers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-200
Number of pages5
JournalThe Open Ophthalmology Journal
Early online date5 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • BCVA
  • Central crowding reading
  • Color changing
  • Flanked letter E
  • Unflanked letter E
  • Vision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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