The development and psychometric testing of three instruments that measure person-centred caring as three concepts - personalisation, participation and responsiveness

Heather Strachan*, Laura Williamson, Andrew Elders, Ben Sutherland, Carina Hibberd, Brian Williams

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Aim: To develop and test the psychometric properties of three instruments that measure Person-centred Caring: as Personalization, Participation and Responsiveness.Design: A three phase mixed methods design used two frameworks: content validity determination and quantification; consensus-based standards for selection of health measurement instruments. Methods: A narrative literature review identified the domain definition. A systematic review of instruments provided the basis for item pools, which were refined by focus groups (N=4) of multidisciplinary staff and service users (N=25) and cognitive interviews (N=11) with service users. Scale content validity indexes were calculated. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted between April 2015 and June 2016. The instruments’ psychometric properties tested included factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Convergent validity was tested, hypothesizing that: Personalization related to relational empathy; Participation related to empowerment; and Responsiveness related to trust.Results: Scale content validity indexes were = .96 in all instruments. Response rates were 24% (N= 191), 15% (N= 108) and 19% (N=124). Two factors were revealed for the Personalization and Responsiveness instruments and one factor for the Participation instrument. All had acceptable: reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha >0.7); construct validity (>50%); and convergent validity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient >0.25, p<. 05).Conclusion:This study composed definitions and instruments that reflect the multidisciplinary teams’ caring behaviours, which have acceptable reliability and validity in the community population. Further psychometric testing of Participation and Responsiveness instruments should be undertaken with a larger sample. Impact: The instruments can be used to monitor the variability of multidisciplinary teams’ caring behaviours; research effective interventions to improve caring behaviours; and increase understanding of the impact of caring on health outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3190-3203
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number11
Early online date25 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • patient-centred care
  • empathy
  • caring
  • patient participation
  • quality improvement
  • instrument development
  • nursing
  • surveys and questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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