T-tubule remodelling and ryanodine receptor organization modulate sodium-calcium exchange

Karin R. Sipido*, Károly Acsai, Gudrun Antoons, Virginie Bito, Niall Macquaide

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a key regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) in cardiac myocytes, predominantly contributing to Ca(2+) removal during the diastolic relaxation process but also modulating excitation-contraction coupling. NCX is preferentially located in the T-tubules and can be close to or within the dyad, where L-type Ca(2+) channels face ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the Ca(2+) release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, especially in larger animals, not all RyRs are in dyads or adjacent to T-tubules, and a substantial fraction of Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum thus occurs at distance from NCX. This chapter deals with the functional consequences of NCX location and how NCX can modulate diastolic and systolic Ca(2+) events. The loss of T-tubules and the effects on RyR function and NCX modulation are explored, as well as quantitative measurement of local Ca(2+) gradients at the level of the dyadic space.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSodium Calcium Exchange: A Growing Spectrum of Pathophysiological Implications
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9781461447566
ISBN (Print)9781461447559
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer New York
ISSN (Print)0065-2598


  • Animals
  • Calcium/metabolism
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type/genetics
  • Humans
  • Muscle Proteins/genetics
  • Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/genetics
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/genetics
  • Sodium/metabolism
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchanger/genetics


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