Subjective reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and sociodemographic predictors of vaccination in Nigeria: an online survey

Muhammad Chutiyami*, Umar Muhammad Bello, Dauda Salihu*, Mustapha Adam Kolo, Abdalkarem Fedgash Alsharari, Hadiza Sabo, Mohammed Bukar, Usman Shehu, Haruna Adamu, Hafsat Ibrahim Alkali, Amina Abdullahi Gambo, Fatima Ado Mahmud, Abdullahi Salisu Muhammad, Ibrahim Ali Bukar

*Corresponding author for this work

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The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective reasons for hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination and the sociodemographic factors associated with vaccination uptake. An online social media survey was conducted among the general Nigerian population using a self-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a p value of less than 0.05. A total of
576 participants with a mean age of 31.86 years participated in the study. 31.3% (n = 180) received one or more doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Teachers were significantly less likely than health professionals to be vaccinated (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.16–0.69). In addition, unemployed people (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.89) were less likely to be vaccinated than government employees, and those of intermediate socioeconomic status (AOR = 0.47 95% CI 0.26–0.88) were less likely to be vaccinated than were those of high socioeconomic status. Five main themes emerged regarding participants’ subjective reasons for hesitating to receive the COVID-19 vaccine: fear related to vaccine content (e.g., efficacy), negative effects on the body (e.g., blood clots), distrust of the system/government (e.g., politics), psychological concerns (e.g., anxiety), and misconceptions. Sociodemographic variables and vaccine misconceptions were found to play an important role in COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Nigeria.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1340
Number of pages11
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2022


  • COVID-19
  • vaccination
  • predictors
  • fear
  • misconception


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