To study fracture properties and establish a shear–softening constitutive law for rock–concrete interfaces, direct tension, three-point bending, and single shear push-out tests were conducted on composite rock–concrete specimens with different degrees of interface roughness. The relationships between tensile strength (ft), average shear strength (τav), initial fracture toughness (Kini,1C), mode I fracture energy (GIf) and interfacial roughness were determined based on experimental results. A shear– softening constitutive law for rock–concrete interface was developed by measuring strain variations on rock surfaces under loading stages during single shear push-out tests and defined based on shear strength (τmax) and mode II fracture energy (GIIf). For practical applications, the relationships between τmax and ft and between GIf and GIIf were determined by statistically fitting the experimental data in such a way that shear–softening constitutive law could be conveniently determined simply by measuring ft and GIf parameters of rock–concrete interface. Also, numerical simulations were carried out to investigate crack propagation in rock–concrete interfaces under mixed mode I–II fractures. Predicted load versus crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) curves agreed well with experimental findings and verified the shear–softening constitutive law for rock–concrete interfaces obtained in this study.
- rock–concrete interface
- constitutive law
- interfacial fracture property
- interfacial crack propagation
- mixed mode I–II fracture