Novel Sn–Ni–Fe ternary phases, which never occur in the metallurgical alloys, were successfully prepared by deposition from an electrolyte based on sodium gluconate, using DC electrodeposition conditions. 57Fe and 119Sn conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and PXRD investigations of these alloys showed that they are amorphous and dominantly ferromagnetic. The occurrence of amorphous Sn–Fe–Ni ternary alloy phase in deposits was found to increase with the current density applied during the deposition. The co-deposition kinetics is mainly governed by the electrodeposition behavior of the tin–gluconate complex that forms in the electrolyte. The high cathodic polarization due to the tin–gluconate discharge causes an apparent mass transfer coupled co-deposition of iron. The nickel deposition rate is independent of the potential and of the partial current of the co-depositing species.
- Sn–Fe–Ni ternary alloy
- 57Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy
- X-ray diffraction