Pig-to-human xenotransplantation has taken steps closer to reality through advances in animal engineering to address immunological as well as microbial problems. The most highlighted problem in xenotransplantation safety has been the potential risk for zoonotic infection mediated by porcine endogenous retroviruses. Safety issues regarding viral zoonosis, particularly porcine endogenous retroviruses, are summarized and commented upon.
- retrovirus infection
- cell transplantation