Statistical quantification of voltage violations in distribution networks penetrated by small wind turbines and battery electric vehicles

Chao Long, Mohamed Emad Farrag (Emad), Chengke Zhou, Donald Hepburn

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    Voltage violation tends to be one of the dominant constraints or critical factors that limit the penetration of small wind turbines (SWTs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in distribution networks. To quantify the voltage violation, a statistical time series based approach is developed in this paper. The daily time varying characteristics of electric loads, wind speeds and BEV charging loads have been taken into consideration in a statistical manner. The method has been compared with the conventional time series approach. It is proven that the proposed methodology, whilst providing a global picture on voltage violations, can potentially be used for fast evaluation of the probability of a voltage violation occurring in a network.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2403-2411
    Number of pages9
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
    Issue number3
    Early online date30 Apr 2013
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013



    • voltage violation
    • probability distribution
    • time series analysis
    • small wind turbines
    • battery electric vehicles
    • BEV

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