Sarcopenia and associated factors according to the EWGSOP2 criteria in older people living in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study

Anna Escriba-Salvans*, Javier Jerez Roig, Miriam Molas-Tuneu, Pau Farres-Godayol, Pau Moreno-Martin, Ester Goutan-Roura, Helena Güell-Masramon, Jordi Amblàs-Novellas, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de Souza, Dawn A. Skelton, Miriam Torres-Moreno, Eduard Minobes-Molina

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: In 2018, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) updated the original definition of sarcopenia, establishing new criteria to be used globally. Early diagnosis of sarcopenia in nursing home residents and the identification of contributing factors would target interventions to reduce the incidence of malnutrition, social isolation, functional decline, hospitalization and mortality.
Aim: Verify the prevalence and the degree of severity of sarcopenia according to the new EWSGOP2 criteria and to analyse its associated factors in residents living in nursing homes in Central Catalonia (Spain).
Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in 4 nursing homes. SARC-F test was applied as the initial screening, muscle strength was measured by a dynamometer, skeletal muscle mass by bioimpedance analysis and physical performance by Gait Speed. Four categories were used: total probable sarcopenia, probable sarcopenia, confirmed sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia.
Results: Among the total sample of 104 nursing home residents (mean age 84.6, ± 7.8; median 86, IQR 110), 84.6% were women and 85 (81.7%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 73.0-88.0) had total probable sarcopenia, 63 (60.5%) had probable sarcopenia, 19 (18.3%) had confirmed sarcopenia and 7 (6.7%) had severe sarcopenia. In the bivariate analysis, obesity was negatively associated and total time in sedentary behavior positively associated with all sarcopenia categories. In addition, malnutrition and urinary continence were positively associated with total and probable sarcopenia. Urinary incontinence was a positive associated factor of total and probable sarcopenia. In the multivariate analysis, obesity represented a negative associated factor: OR = 0.13 (0.03 - 0.57), p = 0.007 and OR = 0.14 (0.03 - 0.60), p = 0.008 with total and probable sarcopenia, respectively, adjusted by urinary incontinence status. For confirmed sarcopenia, obesity also represented a negative associated factor OR = 0.06 (0.01 - 0.99), p = 0.049 and the total time in sedentary behavior a positive associated factor OR = 1.10 (1.00- 1.20), p = 0.040.
Conclusions: According the EWGSOP2 criteria, high prevalence of sarcopenia was found in institutionalized older people, ranging from 6.7 to 81.7% depending on the category. Malnutrition, urinary incontinence and total time in sedentary behavior were associated with sarcopenia, whilst obesity represented a protective factor in this population.
Original languageEnglish
Article number350
Number of pages11
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Early online date21 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • sarcopenia
  • nursing homes
  • dependence
  • older adults
  • care homes
  • frailty
  • continence
  • geriatric assessment
  • Obesity
  • prevalence
  • cross-sectional studies
  • humans
  • male
  • hand strength/physiology
  • Malnutrition/epidemiology
  • Female
  • aged
  • urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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