Salivary nitrite production is elevated in individuals with a higher abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria

Mia C. Burleigh, Luke Liddle, Chris Monaghan, David J. Muggeridge, Nicholas Sculthorpe, John P. Butcher, Fiona L. Henriquez, Jason D. Allen, Chris Easton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated endogenously via NO synthases or via the diet following the action of symbiotic nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Given the important role of NO in smooth muscle control there is an intriguing suggestion that cardiovascular homeostasis may be intertwined with the presence of these bacteria. Here, we measured the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity of 25 healthy humans using 16S rRNA sequencing and observed, for 3.5h, the physiological responses to dietary nitrate ingestion via measurement of blood pressure, and salivary and plasma NO metabolites. We identi¿ed 7 species of bacteria previously known to contribute to nitrate-reduction, the most prevalent of which were Prevotella melaninogenica and Veillonella dispar. Following dietary nitrate supplementation, blood pressure was reduced and salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite increased substantially. We found that the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria was associated with the generation of salivary nitrite but not with any other measured variable. To examine the impact of bacterial abundance on pharmacokinetics we also categorised our participants into two groups; those with a higher abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria (>50%), and those with a lower abundance (<50%). Salivary nitriteproduction was lowerinparticipantswithlowerabundanceofbacteriaand theseindividualsalso exhibited slower salivary nitrite pharmacokinetics. We therefore show that the rate of nitrate to nitrite reduction in the oral cavity is associated with the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria. Nevertheless, higher abundance of these bacteria did not result in an exaggerated plasma nitrite response, the best known marker of NO bioavailability. These data from healthy young adults suggest that the abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria does not in¿uence the generation of NO through the diet, at least when the host has a functional minimum threshold of these microorganisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-88
Number of pages9
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume120
Early online date15 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2018

Fingerprint

Nitrites
Nitrates
Bacteria
Nitric Oxide
Mouth
Pharmacokinetics
Blood pressure
Nutrition
Plasmas
Prevotella melaninogenica
Veillonella
Diet
Blood Pressure
Metabolites
Dietary Supplements
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Microorganisms
Biological Availability
Smooth Muscle
Muscle

Keywords

  • nitrate-reducing bacteria
  • Prevotella
  • nitric oxide

Cite this

Burleigh, Mia C. ; Liddle, Luke ; Monaghan, Chris ; Muggeridge, David J. ; Sculthorpe, Nicholas ; Butcher, John P. ; Henriquez, Fiona L. ; Allen, Jason D. ; Easton, Chris. / Salivary nitrite production is elevated in individuals with a higher abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria. In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018 ; Vol. 120. pp. 80-88.
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abstract = "Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated endogenously via NO synthases or via the diet following the action of symbiotic nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Given the important role of NO in smooth muscle control there is an intriguing suggestion that cardiovascular homeostasis may be intertwined with the presence of these bacteria. Here, we measured the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity of 25 healthy humans using 16S rRNA sequencing and observed, for 3.5h, the physiological responses to dietary nitrate ingestion via measurement of blood pressure, and salivary and plasma NO metabolites. We identi¿ed 7 species of bacteria previously known to contribute to nitrate-reduction, the most prevalent of which were Prevotella melaninogenica and Veillonella dispar. Following dietary nitrate supplementation, blood pressure was reduced and salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite increased substantially. We found that the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria was associated with the generation of salivary nitrite but not with any other measured variable. To examine the impact of bacterial abundance on pharmacokinetics we also categorised our participants into two groups; those with a higher abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria (>50{\%}), and those with a lower abundance (<50{\%}). Salivary nitriteproduction was lowerinparticipantswithlowerabundanceofbacteriaand theseindividualsalso exhibited slower salivary nitrite pharmacokinetics. We therefore show that the rate of nitrate to nitrite reduction in the oral cavity is associated with the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria. Nevertheless, higher abundance of these bacteria did not result in an exaggerated plasma nitrite response, the best known marker of NO bioavailability. These data from healthy young adults suggest that the abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria does not in¿uence the generation of NO through the diet, at least when the host has a functional minimum threshold of these microorganisms.",
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Salivary nitrite production is elevated in individuals with a higher abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria. / Burleigh, Mia C.; Liddle, Luke; Monaghan, Chris; Muggeridge, David J.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Butcher, John P.; Henriquez, Fiona L. ; Allen, Jason D. ; Easton, Chris.

In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 120, 05.2018, p. 80-88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Salivary nitrite production is elevated in individuals with a higher abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria

AU - Burleigh, Mia C.

AU - Liddle, Luke

AU - Monaghan, Chris

AU - Muggeridge, David J.

AU - Sculthorpe, Nicholas

AU - Butcher, John P.

AU - Henriquez, Fiona L.

AU - Allen, Jason D.

AU - Easton, Chris

N1 - Acceptance from webpage AAM: 12m embargo

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N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated endogenously via NO synthases or via the diet following the action of symbiotic nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Given the important role of NO in smooth muscle control there is an intriguing suggestion that cardiovascular homeostasis may be intertwined with the presence of these bacteria. Here, we measured the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity of 25 healthy humans using 16S rRNA sequencing and observed, for 3.5h, the physiological responses to dietary nitrate ingestion via measurement of blood pressure, and salivary and plasma NO metabolites. We identi¿ed 7 species of bacteria previously known to contribute to nitrate-reduction, the most prevalent of which were Prevotella melaninogenica and Veillonella dispar. Following dietary nitrate supplementation, blood pressure was reduced and salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite increased substantially. We found that the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria was associated with the generation of salivary nitrite but not with any other measured variable. To examine the impact of bacterial abundance on pharmacokinetics we also categorised our participants into two groups; those with a higher abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria (>50%), and those with a lower abundance (<50%). Salivary nitriteproduction was lowerinparticipantswithlowerabundanceofbacteriaand theseindividualsalso exhibited slower salivary nitrite pharmacokinetics. We therefore show that the rate of nitrate to nitrite reduction in the oral cavity is associated with the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria. Nevertheless, higher abundance of these bacteria did not result in an exaggerated plasma nitrite response, the best known marker of NO bioavailability. These data from healthy young adults suggest that the abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria does not in¿uence the generation of NO through the diet, at least when the host has a functional minimum threshold of these microorganisms.

AB - Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated endogenously via NO synthases or via the diet following the action of symbiotic nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Given the important role of NO in smooth muscle control there is an intriguing suggestion that cardiovascular homeostasis may be intertwined with the presence of these bacteria. Here, we measured the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity of 25 healthy humans using 16S rRNA sequencing and observed, for 3.5h, the physiological responses to dietary nitrate ingestion via measurement of blood pressure, and salivary and plasma NO metabolites. We identi¿ed 7 species of bacteria previously known to contribute to nitrate-reduction, the most prevalent of which were Prevotella melaninogenica and Veillonella dispar. Following dietary nitrate supplementation, blood pressure was reduced and salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite increased substantially. We found that the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria was associated with the generation of salivary nitrite but not with any other measured variable. To examine the impact of bacterial abundance on pharmacokinetics we also categorised our participants into two groups; those with a higher abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria (>50%), and those with a lower abundance (<50%). Salivary nitriteproduction was lowerinparticipantswithlowerabundanceofbacteriaand theseindividualsalso exhibited slower salivary nitrite pharmacokinetics. We therefore show that the rate of nitrate to nitrite reduction in the oral cavity is associated with the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria. Nevertheless, higher abundance of these bacteria did not result in an exaggerated plasma nitrite response, the best known marker of NO bioavailability. These data from healthy young adults suggest that the abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria does not in¿uence the generation of NO through the diet, at least when the host has a functional minimum threshold of these microorganisms.

KW - nitrate-reducing bacteria

KW - Prevotella

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