CONTEXT: The aim was to summarize estimates of the potential benefits for cardiometabolic risk markers and all-cause mortality of replacing time spent in sedentary behaviors with light-intensity physical activity or with moderate to vigorous physical activity, from studies using device-based measurement.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Four databases covering the period up to December 2016 were searched and analyzed (February 2017). Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. For the meta-analyses, the estimated regression coefficients (β) and 95% CIs were analyzed for BMI, waist circumference, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Pooled relative rate and 95% CIs were calculated for fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values. Hazard ratios were extracted from studies of all-cause mortality risk.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Ten studies (with 17,390 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Reallocation of 30 minutes of sedentary time to light-intensity physical activity was associated with reductions in waist circumference, fasting insulin, and all-cause mortality risk; and with an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time to moderate to vigorous physical activity was associated with reductions in BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and all-cause mortality (not pooled) and with an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
CONCLUSIONS: Replacing sedentary time with either light-intensity physical activity or moderate to vigorous physical activity may be beneficial, but when sedentary time is replaced with moderate to vigorous physical activity, the predicted impacts are stronger and apparent for a broader range of risk markers. These findings point to potential benefits of replacing sedentary time with light-intensity physical activity, which may benefit those less able to tolerate or accommodate higher-intensity activities, including many older adults.
- sedentary time
- sedentary behaviors
- cardiometabolic risk markers
- light-intensity physical activity
- moderate to vigorous physical activity