Reclaiming the "D" in HRD: a typology of development conceptualizations, antecedents, and outcomes

Thomas N. Garavan, David McGuire*, Monica Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    23 Citations (Scopus)


    Despite being viewed as a major construct at the heart of human resource development (HRD), considerable complexity, confusion, and ambiguity exists regarding the conceptualization of development. The notion of development has attracted interest from a wide array of fields including HRD, adult education, psychology, management studies, and organization theory. As a result, there is little consistency in how development is understood, conceptualized, or tested. This article examines the current body of knowledge and understanding on development to develop a typology to focus future research and investigations. A typology of development is proposed, and four development types are identified. The article then articulates the underlying theories, primary antecedents, and outcomes associated with each of the four development types. Finally, recommendations and avenues for future research arising from the typology are specified
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)359-388
    Number of pages30
    JournalHuman Resource Development Review
    Issue number4
    Early online date28 Sep 2015
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015


    • HRD
    • human resource development
    • typology
    • antecedents
    • development


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