Diabetic foot deformity onset and progression maybe associated with abnormal foot and ankle motion. The modified Oxford multi-segmental foot model allows kinematic assessment of inter-segmental foot motion. However, there are insufficient anatomical landmarks to accurately representation the alignment of the hindfoot and forefoot segments during model construction. This is most notable for the sagittal plane which is referenced parallel to the floor, allowing comparison of inter-segmental excursion but not capturing important sagittal hind-to-forefoot deformity associated with diabetic foot disease and can potentially underestimate true kinematic differences. The purpose of the study was to compare walking kinematics using local coordinate systems derived from the modified Oxford model and the radiographic directed model which incorporated individual calcaneal and 1st metatarsal declination pitch angles for the hindfoot and forefoot. We studied twelve participants in each of the following groups: (1) diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy and medial column foot deformity (DMPN+), (2) DMPN without medial column deformity (DMPN-) and (3) age- and weight-match controls. The modified Oxford model coordinate system did not identify differences between groups in the initial, peak, final, or excursion hindfoot relative to shank or forefoot relative to hindfoot dorsiflexion/plantarflexion during walking. The radiographic coordinate system identified the DMPN+ group to have an initial, peak and final position of the forefoot relative to hindfoot that was more dorsiflexed (lower arch phenotype) than the DMPN- group (p <.05). Use of radiographic alignment in kinematic modeling of those with foot deformity reveals segmental motion occurring upon alignment indicative of a lower arch. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.