Voltage unbalance (VU) in residential distribution networks (RDNs) is mainly caused by load unbalance in three phases, resulting from network configuration and load-variations. The increasing penetration of distributed generation devices, such as small wind turbines (SWTs), and their uneven distribution over the three phases have introduced difficulties in evaluating possible VU. This paper aims to provide a three-phase probabilistic power flow method, point estimate method to evaluate the VU. This method, considering the randomness of load switching in customers’ homes and time-variation in wind speed, is shown to be capable of providing a global picture of a network’s VU degree so that it can be used for fast evaluation. Applying the 2m + 1 scheme of the proposed method to a generic UK distribution network shows that a balanced SWT penetration over three phases reduces the VU of a RDN. Greater unbalance in SWT penetration results in higher voltage unbalance factor (VUF), and cause VUF in excess of the UK statutory limit of 1.3%.
- voltage unbalance
- small wind turbines
- point estimate method
Long, C., Farrag , M. E. A., Hepburn, D. M., & Zhou, C. (2014). Point estimate method for voltage unbalance evaluation in residential distribution networks with high penetration of small wind turbines. Energies, 7(11), 7717-7731. https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117717