Performance of a live multi-gateway LoRaWAN and interference measurement across indoor and outdoor localities

Eugen Harinda*, Andrew J. Wixted, Ayyaz-UI-Haq Qureshi, Hadi Larijani*, Ryan M. Gibson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
103 Downloads (Pure)


Little work has been reported on the magnitude and impact of interference with the performance of Internet of Things (IoT) applications operated by Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN) in the unlicensed 868 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band. The propagation performance and signal activity measurement of such technologies can give many insights to effectively build long-range wireless communications in a Non-Line of Sight (NLOS) environment. In this paper, the performance of a live multi-gateway in indoor office site in Glasgow city was analysed in 26 days of traffic measurement. The indoor network performances were compared to similar performance measurements from outdoor LoRaWAN test traffic generated across Glasgow Central Business District (CBD) and elsewhere on the same LoRaWAN. The results revealed 99.95% packet transfer success on the first attempt in the indoor site compared to 95.7% at the external site. The analysis shows that interference is attributed to nearly 50 X greater LoRaWAN outdoor packet loss than indoor. The interference measurement results showed a 13.2–97.3% and 4.8–54% probability of interfering signals, respectively, in the mandatory Long-Range (LoRa) uplink and downlink channels, capable of limiting LoRa coverage in some areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number25
Number of pages23
Issue number2
Early online date11 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • LoRaWAN
  • interference
  • received signal strength
  • live multi-gateway
  • non-line-of-sight
  • internet of things

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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