Observer-reported cognitive decline in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors and its association with long-term survivor and relative outcomes

Vicky L. Joshi*, Britt Borregaard, Tina Broby Mikkelsen, Lars H. Tang, Erik Blennow Nordström, Sofie Moesgaard Bruvik, Anders Wieghorst, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler, Mette Kirstine Wagner

*Corresponding author for this work

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Aim: Long-term cognitive decline after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still poorly understood. This study describes long-term observer-reported cognitive decline among Danish OHCA survivors, including differences in years since the event, and investigates characteristics and self-reported outcomes associated with observer-reported cognitive decline. Methods: Adults who survived an OHCA from 2016 to 2019, and their relatives, completed the national DANish Cardiac Arrest Survivorship survey. Relatives completed the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Cardiac Arrest version (IQCODE-CA), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the World Health Organisation-Five Well-being index; and survivors completed the Two Simple Questions (everyday activities and mental recovery), the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, HADS, and the Short World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Potential associations between survivor characteristics and the IQCODE-CA were investigated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Self-reported outcomes among survivors and relatives, and the association with IQCODE-CA scores were investigated using separate logistic regression models. Results: Total median IQCODE-CA score was 3.04 (IQR: 3.00–3.27), with 47% having possible cognitive decline (score ≥ 3.04), consistent across time groups. Increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99) and worse self-reported mental and physical outcomes for survivors and relatives, except ‘everyday activities’ were significantly associated with possible cognitive decline among survivors. Conclusions: Nearly half of OHCA survivors may suffer long-term cognitive decline. Worse self-reported mental and physical outcomes among survivors and their relatives are associated with potential cognitive decline emphasising the need for post-OHCA care to include systematic neurocognitive assessment, tailored support and effective rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110162
Number of pages9
Early online date5 Mar 2024
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Cognitive decline
  • Observerreported
  • OHCA
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivorship
  • Relatives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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