Mass and energy balances are required in power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and commodity transfer processes in order to achieve efficient utilization of energy and raw materials. There is a need for accurate, reliable, on-line, continuous and non-invasive measurement of solids' mass flow rate in many industrial processes mentioned above. Thermal flowmeters, in theory, provide a true indication of the mass flow of solids in pneumatic conveying pipelines.
- heat transfer mechanisms
- dense phase flow