Myopes have significantly higher serum melatonin concentrations than non-myopes

Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi, Diego Cobice, Kathryn J. Saunders

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Abstract

PurposeExperimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans.

MethodsMorning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2). Axial length (AL), corneal radii (CR) and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) were also recorded. Participants were defined as myopic if non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error =-0.50 DS at phase 1.

ResultsNine participants were lost to follow up. Mel concentrations were measurable for all myopes (phase 1 n = 25, phase 2 n = 22) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 29, phase 2 n = 23). SER did not change significantly between phases (p = 0.51). DA concentrations were measurable for fewer myopes (phase 1 n = 13, phase 2 n = 12) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 23, phase 2 n = 16). Myopes exhibited significantly higher Mel concentrations than non-myopes at phase 1 (Median difference: 10 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and at phase 2 (Median difference: 7.3 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and lower DA concentrations at phase 2 (Median difference: 4.7 pg mL-1, p = 0.006). Mel concentrations were positively associated with more negative SER (all r = -0.53, all p < 0.001), longer AL (all r = 0.37, all p = 0.008) and higher AL/CR ratio (all r = 0.51, all p < 0.001).

ConclusionThis study reports for the first time in humans that myopes exhibit higher serum Mel concentrations than non-myopes. This may indicate a role for light exposure and circadian rhythm in the human myopic growth mechanism. Further research should focus on younger cohorts exhibiting more dynamic myopic progression and explore the profile of these neurochemicals alongside evaluation of sleep patterns in myopic and non-myopic groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-567
Number of pages11
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Volume37
Issue number5
Early online date18 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2017

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Melatonin
Dopamine
Serum
Myopia
Refractive Errors
Lost to Follow-Up
Solid Phase Extraction
Circadian Rhythm
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography
Sleep
Animal Models
Light
Growth
Research

Keywords

  • dopamine
  • melatonin
  • myopia

Cite this

Kearney, Stephanie ; O'Donoghue, Lisa ; Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty ; Cobice, Diego ; Saunders, Kathryn J. / Myopes have significantly higher serum melatonin concentrations than non-myopes. In: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 2017 ; Vol. 37, No. 5. pp. 557-567.
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abstract = "PurposeExperimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans.MethodsMorning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2). Axial length (AL), corneal radii (CR) and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) were also recorded. Participants were defined as myopic if non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error =-0.50 DS at phase 1.ResultsNine participants were lost to follow up. Mel concentrations were measurable for all myopes (phase 1 n = 25, phase 2 n = 22) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 29, phase 2 n = 23). SER did not change significantly between phases (p = 0.51). DA concentrations were measurable for fewer myopes (phase 1 n = 13, phase 2 n = 12) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 23, phase 2 n = 16). Myopes exhibited significantly higher Mel concentrations than non-myopes at phase 1 (Median difference: 10 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and at phase 2 (Median difference: 7.3 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and lower DA concentrations at phase 2 (Median difference: 4.7 pg mL-1, p = 0.006). Mel concentrations were positively associated with more negative SER (all r = -0.53, all p < 0.001), longer AL (all r = 0.37, all p = 0.008) and higher AL/CR ratio (all r = 0.51, all p < 0.001).ConclusionThis study reports for the first time in humans that myopes exhibit higher serum Mel concentrations than non-myopes. This may indicate a role for light exposure and circadian rhythm in the human myopic growth mechanism. Further research should focus on younger cohorts exhibiting more dynamic myopic progression and explore the profile of these neurochemicals alongside evaluation of sleep patterns in myopic and non-myopic groups.",
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Myopes have significantly higher serum melatonin concentrations than non-myopes. / Kearney, Stephanie; O'Donoghue, Lisa; Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty; Cobice, Diego; Saunders, Kathryn J.

In: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol. 37, No. 5, 23.08.2017, p. 557-567.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Myopes have significantly higher serum melatonin concentrations than non-myopes

AU - Kearney, Stephanie

AU - O'Donoghue, Lisa

AU - Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty

AU - Cobice, Diego

AU - Saunders, Kathryn J.

N1 - Acceptance from webpage OA article (hybrid) Author not at GCU at pub. ET 31/10/19 Author start date at GCU is after acceptance > apply exception 254a. ET 13/11/19

PY - 2017/8/23

Y1 - 2017/8/23

N2 - PurposeExperimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans.MethodsMorning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2). Axial length (AL), corneal radii (CR) and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) were also recorded. Participants were defined as myopic if non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error =-0.50 DS at phase 1.ResultsNine participants were lost to follow up. Mel concentrations were measurable for all myopes (phase 1 n = 25, phase 2 n = 22) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 29, phase 2 n = 23). SER did not change significantly between phases (p = 0.51). DA concentrations were measurable for fewer myopes (phase 1 n = 13, phase 2 n = 12) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 23, phase 2 n = 16). Myopes exhibited significantly higher Mel concentrations than non-myopes at phase 1 (Median difference: 10 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and at phase 2 (Median difference: 7.3 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and lower DA concentrations at phase 2 (Median difference: 4.7 pg mL-1, p = 0.006). Mel concentrations were positively associated with more negative SER (all r = -0.53, all p < 0.001), longer AL (all r = 0.37, all p = 0.008) and higher AL/CR ratio (all r = 0.51, all p < 0.001).ConclusionThis study reports for the first time in humans that myopes exhibit higher serum Mel concentrations than non-myopes. This may indicate a role for light exposure and circadian rhythm in the human myopic growth mechanism. Further research should focus on younger cohorts exhibiting more dynamic myopic progression and explore the profile of these neurochemicals alongside evaluation of sleep patterns in myopic and non-myopic groups.

AB - PurposeExperimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans.MethodsMorning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2). Axial length (AL), corneal radii (CR) and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) were also recorded. Participants were defined as myopic if non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error =-0.50 DS at phase 1.ResultsNine participants were lost to follow up. Mel concentrations were measurable for all myopes (phase 1 n = 25, phase 2 n = 22) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 29, phase 2 n = 23). SER did not change significantly between phases (p = 0.51). DA concentrations were measurable for fewer myopes (phase 1 n = 13, phase 2 n = 12) and non-myopes (phase 1 n = 23, phase 2 n = 16). Myopes exhibited significantly higher Mel concentrations than non-myopes at phase 1 (Median difference: 10 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and at phase 2 (Median difference: 7.3 pg mL-1, p < 0.001) and lower DA concentrations at phase 2 (Median difference: 4.7 pg mL-1, p = 0.006). Mel concentrations were positively associated with more negative SER (all r = -0.53, all p < 0.001), longer AL (all r = 0.37, all p = 0.008) and higher AL/CR ratio (all r = 0.51, all p < 0.001).ConclusionThis study reports for the first time in humans that myopes exhibit higher serum Mel concentrations than non-myopes. This may indicate a role for light exposure and circadian rhythm in the human myopic growth mechanism. Further research should focus on younger cohorts exhibiting more dynamic myopic progression and explore the profile of these neurochemicals alongside evaluation of sleep patterns in myopic and non-myopic groups.

KW - dopamine

KW - melatonin

KW - myopia

U2 - 10.1111/opo.12396

DO - 10.1111/opo.12396

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 557

EP - 567

JO - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

JF - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

SN - 0275-5408

IS - 5

ER -