Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Maggie Lawrence*, Jan Pringle, Susan Kerr, Joanne Booth, Lindsay Govan, Nicola J. Roberts

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Background
Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.

Strategy
Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.

Results
Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants) of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean) (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants); diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean) (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407
participants). No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants). There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants) and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants); however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant
reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants). Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0.16 to 0.88, P = 0.02, I2 = 0%, 4,053 participants).

Conclusions
There are benefits to be derived from multimodal secondary prevention interventions. However, the findings are complex and should be interpreted with caution. Further, high quality trials providing comprehensive detail of interventions and outcomes, are required.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0120902
Number of pages25
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2015

Keywords

  • stroke
  • secondary prevention of stroke
  • systematic review
  • meta analysis
  • blood pressure

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