Retinal diseases are a leading cause of visual loss and blindness, affecting a significant proportion of the population worldwide and having a detrimental impact on quality of life, with consequent economic burden. The retina is highly metabolically active, and a number of retinal diseases are associated with metabolic dysfunction. To better understand the pathogenesis underlying such retinopathies, new technology has been developed to elucidate the mechanism behind retinal diseases. Metabolomics is a relatively new “omics” technology, which has developed subsequent to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. This new technology can provide qualitative and quantitative information about low-molecular-weight metabolites (M.W. < 1500 Da) in a given biological system, which shed light on the physiological or pathological state of a cell or tissue sample at a particular time point. In this article we provide an extensive review of the application of metabolomics to retinal diseases, with focus on age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), glaucoma, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP).
- metabolomics; retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy; retinitis pigmentosa; retinopathy of premature; glaucoma