The ability to measure the functional behaviour of the plantar heel pad is clinically relevant in dystrophic or pathological heel conditions and may help to inform the design and development of interventions that attempt to restore normal function. In this study we present a novel technique which utilises orthotic heel inserts with an embedded ultrasound (US) transducer to allow the functional, dynamic behaviour of the heel pad to be measured in-shoe during gait. The aim of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of the technique, determine the reproducibility of measurements, and to compare the effects of two orthotic inserts: (i) a flat orthotic heel raise and (ii) a contoured heel cup insert on the behaviour of the heel pad during gait.
Telfer, S., Woodburn, J., & Turner, D. (2014). Measurement of functional heel pad behaviour in-shoe during gait using orthotic embedded ultrasonography. Gait and Posture, 39(1), 328–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.07.118