Introducing adaptive machine learning technique for solving short-term hydrothermal scheduling with prohibited discharge zones

Saqib Akram, Muhammad Salman Fakhar*, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif, Ghulam Abbas, Nasim Ullah, Alsharef Mohammad, Mohamed Emad Farrag

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


The short-term hydrothermal scheduling (STHTS) problem has paramount importance in an interconnected power system. Owing to an operational research problem, it has been a basic concern of power companies to minimize fuel costs. To solve STHTS, a cascaded topology of four hydel generators with one equivalent thermal generator is considered. The problem is complex and non-linear and has equality and inequality constraints, including water discharge rate constraint, power generation constraint of hydel and thermal power generators, power balance constraint, reservoir storage constraint, initial and end volume constraint of water reservoirs, and hydraulic continuity constraint. The time delays in the transport of water from one reservoir to the other are also considered. A supervised machine learning (ML) model is developed that takes the solution of the STHTS problem without PDZ, by any metaheuristic technique, as input and outputs an optimized solution to STHTS with PDZ and valve point loading (VPL) effect. The results are quite promising and better compared to the literature. The versatility and effectiveness of the proposed approach are tested by applying it to the previous works and comparing the cost of power generation given by this model with those in the literature. A comparison of results and the monetary savings that could be achieved by using this approach instead of using only metaheuristic algorithms for PDZ and VPL are also given. The slipups in the VPL case in the literature are also addressed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11673
Number of pages18
Issue number18
Early online date16 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • hydrothermal scheduling
  • supervised machine learning model
  • empirical loss minimization
  • prohibited discharge zones
  • valve point loading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Building and Construction
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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