International Policy Review on Small Sewage Systems

Karin Helwig, Emanuella Christensen, Fiona Henderson, Ania Escudero , Kaitlin Ramsay, Gabriele Frascaroli

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


Private small sewage systems, such as septic tanks, if not properly managed, can lead to a number of issues including pollution of the water environment and nuisance issues such as ponding and odour. These issues can have significant negative impacts on local communities and are difficult for these communities to address. Through an international review of approaches to small sewage systems, this project sought to understand how small private sewage systems are managed in other countries (with similar socio-economic profiles to Scotland) and the benefits and disbenefits associated with different approaches, with a view to informing approaches in Scotland.The review focused in particular on policies relating to the authorisation of new and existing small sewage systems and to the ongoing regulation both ‘historic’ and newly-installed systems.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherCentre of Expertise for Waters (CREW)
Number of pages33
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022


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