Integrating wireless remote sensing and sensors for monitoring pesticide pollution in surface and groundwater

Titus Mutunga*, Sinan Sinanovic, Colin Harrison

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

Water constitutes an indispensable resource crucial for the sustenance of humanity, as it plays an integral role in various sectors such as agriculture, industrial processes, and domestic consumption. Even though water covers 71% of the global land surface, governments have been grappling with the challenge of ensuring the provision of safe water for domestic use. A contributing factor to this situation is the persistent contamination of available water sources rendering them unfit for human consumption. A common contaminant, pesticides are not frequently tested for despite their serious effects on biodiversity. Pesticide determination in water quality assessment is a challenging task because the procedures involved in the extraction and detection are complex. This reduces their popularity in many monitoring campaigns despite their harmful effects. If the existing methods of pesticide analysis are adapted by leveraging new technologies, then information concerning their presence in water ecosystems can be exposed. Furthermore, beyond the advantages conferred by the integration of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Learning (ML), and big data analytics, a notable outcome is the attainment of a heightened degree of granularity in the information of water ecosystems. This paper discusses methods of pesticide detection in water, emphasizing the possible use of electrochemical sensors, biosensors, and paper-based sensors in wireless sensing. It also explores the application of WSNs in water, the IoT, computing models, ML, and big data analytics, and their potential for integration as technologies useful for pesticide monitoring in water.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3191
Number of pages32
JournalSensors
Volume24
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2024

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