Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Jack Stone, Hannah Fraser, Aaron G Lim, Josephine G Walker, Zoe Ward, Louis MacGregor, Adam Trickey, Sam Abbott, Steffanie A Strathdee, Daniela Abramovitz, Lisa Maher, Jenny Iversen, Julie Bruneau, Geng Zang, Richard S Garfein, Yung-Fen Yen, Tasnim Azim, Shruti H Mehta, Michael-John Milloy, Margaret E HellardRachel Sacks-Davis, Paul M Dietze, Campbell Aitken, Malvina Aladashvili, Tengiz Tsertsvadze, Viktor Mravcik, Michel Alary, Elise Roy, Pavlo Smyrnov, Yana Sazonova, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens, Vivian D Hope, Monica Desai, Ellen Heinsbroek, Sharon Hutchinson, Norah Palmateer, Andrew McAuley, Lucy Platt, Natasha K Martin, Frederick L Altice, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman

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Abstract

Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high rates of incarceration and may be at high risk of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection during or after incarceration. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether incarceration history elevates HIV or HCV acquisition risk among PWID.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies in any language published since 2000 assessing HIV or HCV incidence among PWID. Studies were included if they reported the association between recent (in last 3, 6 or 12 months or since last follow-up) or past incarceration and HIV or HCV (primary or reinfection) incidence. Authors of incidence studies not reporting these outcomes were contacted for data. Data were extracted and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses.

Findings: Twenty published and 21 unpublished studies were included, originating from Australasia, Western and Eastern Europe, North and Latin America and East and Southeast Asia. Recent incarceration was associated with an 81% (rate ratio (RR):1.81, 95%CI: 1.40-2.34) and 62% (RR:1.62, 95%CI:1.28-2.05) increase in HIV and HCV acquisition risk, respectively. Past incarceration was associated with a 25% and 21% increase in HIV (RR:1.25, 95%CI:0.94-1.66) and HCV (RR:1.21, 95%CI:1.02-1.43) and acquisition risk, respectively.

Interpretation: Incarceration is associated with substantial short-term HIV and HCV acquisition risk among PWID and could be a significant driver for HCV and HIV transmission among PWID. These findings support the need for developing novel interventions to minimise the risk of HCV acquisition – including addressing structural risks associated with drug laws and excessive incarceration of PWID.

Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute of Health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1397-1409
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
Volume18
Issue number12
Early online date29 Oct 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

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Hepacivirus
Meta-Analysis
History
HIV
Pharmaceutical Preparations
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Australasia
Drug Legislation
Natural Science Disciplines
Eastern Europe
Southeastern Asia
Far East
Latin America
Incidence
Virus Diseases
North America
MEDLINE
Cohort Studies
Language
Databases

Keywords

  • HIV
  • hepatitis C
  • drugs
  • injecting drug use

Cite this

Stone, J., Fraser, H., Lim, A. G., Walker, J. G., Ward, Z., MacGregor, L., ... Vickerman, P. (2018). Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 18(12), 1397-1409. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30469-9
Stone, Jack ; Fraser, Hannah ; Lim, Aaron G ; Walker, Josephine G ; Ward, Zoe ; MacGregor, Louis ; Trickey, Adam ; Abbott, Sam ; Strathdee, Steffanie A ; Abramovitz, Daniela ; Maher, Lisa ; Iversen, Jenny ; Bruneau, Julie ; Zang, Geng ; Garfein, Richard S ; Yen, Yung-Fen ; Azim, Tasnim ; Mehta, Shruti H ; Milloy, Michael-John ; Hellard, Margaret E ; Sacks-Davis, Rachel ; Dietze, Paul M ; Aitken, Campbell ; Aladashvili, Malvina ; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz ; Mravcik, Viktor ; Alary, Michel ; Roy, Elise ; Smyrnov, Pavlo ; Sazonova, Yana ; Young, April M ; Havens, Jennifer R ; Hope, Vivian D ; Desai, Monica ; Heinsbroek, Ellen ; Hutchinson, Sharon ; Palmateer, Norah ; McAuley, Andrew ; Platt, Lucy ; Martin, Natasha K ; Altice, Frederick L ; Hickman, Matthew ; Vickerman, Peter. / Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2018 ; Vol. 18, No. 12. pp. 1397-1409.
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abstract = "Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high rates of incarceration and may be at high risk of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection during or after incarceration. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether incarceration history elevates HIV or HCV acquisition risk among PWID.Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies in any language published since 2000 assessing HIV or HCV incidence among PWID. Studies were included if they reported the association between recent (in last 3, 6 or 12 months or since last follow-up) or past incarceration and HIV or HCV (primary or reinfection) incidence. Authors of incidence studies not reporting these outcomes were contacted for data. Data were extracted and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Findings: Twenty published and 21 unpublished studies were included, originating from Australasia, Western and Eastern Europe, North and Latin America and East and Southeast Asia. Recent incarceration was associated with an 81{\%} (rate ratio (RR):1.81, 95{\%}CI: 1.40-2.34) and 62{\%} (RR:1.62, 95{\%}CI:1.28-2.05) increase in HIV and HCV acquisition risk, respectively. Past incarceration was associated with a 25{\%} and 21{\%} increase in HIV (RR:1.25, 95{\%}CI:0.94-1.66) and HCV (RR:1.21, 95{\%}CI:1.02-1.43) and acquisition risk, respectively.Interpretation: Incarceration is associated with substantial short-term HIV and HCV acquisition risk among PWID and could be a significant driver for HCV and HIV transmission among PWID. These findings support the need for developing novel interventions to minimise the risk of HCV acquisition – including addressing structural risks associated with drug laws and excessive incarceration of PWID.Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute of Health.",
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author = "Jack Stone and Hannah Fraser and Lim, {Aaron G} and Walker, {Josephine G} and Zoe Ward and Louis MacGregor and Adam Trickey and Sam Abbott and Strathdee, {Steffanie A} and Daniela Abramovitz and Lisa Maher and Jenny Iversen and Julie Bruneau and Geng Zang and Garfein, {Richard S} and Yung-Fen Yen and Tasnim Azim and Mehta, {Shruti H} and Michael-John Milloy and Hellard, {Margaret E} and Rachel Sacks-Davis and Dietze, {Paul M} and Campbell Aitken and Malvina Aladashvili and Tengiz Tsertsvadze and Viktor Mravcik and Michel Alary and Elise Roy and Pavlo Smyrnov and Yana Sazonova and Young, {April M} and Havens, {Jennifer R} and Hope, {Vivian D} and Monica Desai and Ellen Heinsbroek and Sharon Hutchinson and Norah Palmateer and Andrew McAuley and Lucy Platt and Martin, {Natasha K} and Altice, {Frederick L} and Matthew Hickman and Peter Vickerman",
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Stone, J, Fraser, H, Lim, AG, Walker, JG, Ward, Z, MacGregor, L, Trickey, A, Abbott, S, Strathdee, SA, Abramovitz, D, Maher, L, Iversen, J, Bruneau, J, Zang, G, Garfein, RS, Yen, Y-F, Azim, T, Mehta, SH, Milloy, M-J, Hellard, ME, Sacks-Davis, R, Dietze, PM, Aitken, C, Aladashvili, M, Tsertsvadze, T, Mravcik, V, Alary, M, Roy, E, Smyrnov, P, Sazonova, Y, Young, AM, Havens, JR, Hope, VD, Desai, M, Heinsbroek, E, Hutchinson, S, Palmateer, N, McAuley, A, Platt, L, Martin, NK, Altice, FL, Hickman, M & Vickerman, P 2018, 'Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis', The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1397-1409. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30469-9

Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. / Stone, Jack; Fraser, Hannah; Lim, Aaron G; Walker, Josephine G; Ward, Zoe; MacGregor, Louis; Trickey, Adam; Abbott, Sam; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Abramovitz, Daniela; Maher, Lisa; Iversen, Jenny; Bruneau, Julie; Zang, Geng; Garfein, Richard S; Yen, Yung-Fen; Azim, Tasnim; Mehta, Shruti H; Milloy, Michael-John; Hellard, Margaret E; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Dietze, Paul M; Aitken, Campbell; Aladashvili, Malvina; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Mravcik, Viktor; Alary, Michel; Roy, Elise; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Sazonova, Yana; Young, April M; Havens, Jennifer R; Hope, Vivian D; Desai, Monica; Heinsbroek, Ellen; Hutchinson, Sharon; Palmateer, Norah; McAuley, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Martin, Natasha K; Altice, Frederick L; Hickman, Matthew; Vickerman, Peter.

In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 18, No. 12, 12.2018, p. 1397-1409.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Stone, Jack

AU - Fraser, Hannah

AU - Lim, Aaron G

AU - Walker, Josephine G

AU - Ward, Zoe

AU - MacGregor, Louis

AU - Trickey, Adam

AU - Abbott, Sam

AU - Strathdee, Steffanie A

AU - Abramovitz, Daniela

AU - Maher, Lisa

AU - Iversen, Jenny

AU - Bruneau, Julie

AU - Zang, Geng

AU - Garfein, Richard S

AU - Yen, Yung-Fen

AU - Azim, Tasnim

AU - Mehta, Shruti H

AU - Milloy, Michael-John

AU - Hellard, Margaret E

AU - Sacks-Davis, Rachel

AU - Dietze, Paul M

AU - Aitken, Campbell

AU - Aladashvili, Malvina

AU - Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

AU - Mravcik, Viktor

AU - Alary, Michel

AU - Roy, Elise

AU - Smyrnov, Pavlo

AU - Sazonova, Yana

AU - Young, April M

AU - Havens, Jennifer R

AU - Hope, Vivian D

AU - Desai, Monica

AU - Heinsbroek, Ellen

AU - Hutchinson, Sharon

AU - Palmateer, Norah

AU - McAuley, Andrew

AU - Platt, Lucy

AU - Martin, Natasha K

AU - Altice, Frederick L

AU - Hickman, Matthew

AU - Vickerman, Peter

N1 - Acceptance in SAN OA article

PY - 2018/12

Y1 - 2018/12

N2 - Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high rates of incarceration and may be at high risk of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection during or after incarceration. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether incarceration history elevates HIV or HCV acquisition risk among PWID.Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies in any language published since 2000 assessing HIV or HCV incidence among PWID. Studies were included if they reported the association between recent (in last 3, 6 or 12 months or since last follow-up) or past incarceration and HIV or HCV (primary or reinfection) incidence. Authors of incidence studies not reporting these outcomes were contacted for data. Data were extracted and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Findings: Twenty published and 21 unpublished studies were included, originating from Australasia, Western and Eastern Europe, North and Latin America and East and Southeast Asia. Recent incarceration was associated with an 81% (rate ratio (RR):1.81, 95%CI: 1.40-2.34) and 62% (RR:1.62, 95%CI:1.28-2.05) increase in HIV and HCV acquisition risk, respectively. Past incarceration was associated with a 25% and 21% increase in HIV (RR:1.25, 95%CI:0.94-1.66) and HCV (RR:1.21, 95%CI:1.02-1.43) and acquisition risk, respectively.Interpretation: Incarceration is associated with substantial short-term HIV and HCV acquisition risk among PWID and could be a significant driver for HCV and HIV transmission among PWID. These findings support the need for developing novel interventions to minimise the risk of HCV acquisition – including addressing structural risks associated with drug laws and excessive incarceration of PWID.Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute of Health.

AB - Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high rates of incarceration and may be at high risk of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection during or after incarceration. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether incarceration history elevates HIV or HCV acquisition risk among PWID.Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies in any language published since 2000 assessing HIV or HCV incidence among PWID. Studies were included if they reported the association between recent (in last 3, 6 or 12 months or since last follow-up) or past incarceration and HIV or HCV (primary or reinfection) incidence. Authors of incidence studies not reporting these outcomes were contacted for data. Data were extracted and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Findings: Twenty published and 21 unpublished studies were included, originating from Australasia, Western and Eastern Europe, North and Latin America and East and Southeast Asia. Recent incarceration was associated with an 81% (rate ratio (RR):1.81, 95%CI: 1.40-2.34) and 62% (RR:1.62, 95%CI:1.28-2.05) increase in HIV and HCV acquisition risk, respectively. Past incarceration was associated with a 25% and 21% increase in HIV (RR:1.25, 95%CI:0.94-1.66) and HCV (RR:1.21, 95%CI:1.02-1.43) and acquisition risk, respectively.Interpretation: Incarceration is associated with substantial short-term HIV and HCV acquisition risk among PWID and could be a significant driver for HCV and HIV transmission among PWID. These findings support the need for developing novel interventions to minimise the risk of HCV acquisition – including addressing structural risks associated with drug laws and excessive incarceration of PWID.Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute of Health.

KW - HIV

KW - hepatitis C

KW - drugs

KW - injecting drug use

U2 - 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30469-9

DO - 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30469-9

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 1397

EP - 1409

IS - 12

ER -

Stone J, Fraser H, Lim AG, Walker JG, Ward Z, MacGregor L et al. Incarceration history and risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus acquisition among people who inject drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2018 Dec;18(12):1397-1409. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30469-9