Image association and European capital of culture: empirical insights through the case study of Liverpool

Paurav Shukla, Janice Brown, Donna Harper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Image has been found to be one of the important influences in the selection of consumers' choice for visiting and investing in a destination leading to sustainable development. Important determinants of tourism namely, knowledge of destination attractions and image association were employed in this research based on previous studies in a number of fields. The research reported in this paper presents the results of an empirical test of the determinants related to tourism using Liverpool as a case study because of its selection as the European Capital of Culture (CoC) for 2008. European Capital of Culture scheme has among its many objectives the idea of sustainable development for the chosen CoC. Combination of data collection methods was used for the research. The paper contributes to the ongoing debate on destination image association by providing empirical evidence through the case study or Liverpool as well as how consumers relate to a destination and especially a CoC. One of the major findings of the study was the identification of image association clusters with regard to Liverpool as a CoC. We brand this clusters as the ‘tangible attractions cluster’ and ‘intangible attractions cluster’. The results of this research provide important implications for strategic image management and can aid in designing and implementing sustainable marketing programs for creating and enhancing tourism destination images.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-12
Number of pages7
JournalTourism Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • image association
  • destination marketing
  • capital of culture
  • city marketing
  • Liverpool


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