An established three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) cDNA array was expanded to 14,496 probes with the addition of hepatic clones derived from subtractive and normalized libraries from control males and males exposed to model toxicants. Microarrays and one-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, together with individual protein and gene biomarkers were employed to investigate the hepatic responses of the stickleback to ethinyl-estradiol (EE2) exposure. Male fish were exposed via the water to EE2, including environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1–100 ng/l) for 4 days, and hepatic transcript and metabolite profiles, kidney spiggin protein and serum vitellogenin concentrations were determined in comparison to controls.
- endocrine disruption
- aquatic toxicology