HDL-IDS: a hybrid deep learning architecture for intrusion detection in the Internet of Vehicles

Safi Ullah, Muazzam A. Khan, Jawad Ahmad*, Sajjad Shaukat Jamal, Zil e Huma, Muhammad Tahir Hassan, Nikolaos Pitropakis, Arshad, William J. Buchanan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an application of the Internet of Things(IoT) network that connects smart vehicles to the internet, and vehicles with each other. With the emergence of IoV technology, customers have placed great attention on smart vehicles. However, the rapid growth of IoV has also caused many security and privacy challenges that can lead to fatal accidents. To reduce smart vehicle accidents and detect malicious attacks in vehicular networks, several researchers have presented machine learning (ML)-based models for intrusion detection in IoT networks. However, a proficient and real-time faster algorithm is needed to detect malicious attacks in IoV. This article proposes a hybrid deep learning (DL) model for cyber attack detection in IoV. The proposed model is based on long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU).The performance of the proposed model is analyzed by using two datasets—a combined DDoS dataset that contains CIC DoS, CI-CIDS 2017, and CSE-CIC-IDS2018, and a car-hacking dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher attack detection accuracy of 99.5% and 99.9%for DDoS and car hacks, respectively. The other performance scores, precision, recall, and F1-score, also verify the superior performance of the proposed framework.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1340
Number of pages20
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2022


  • deep learning
  • gated recurrent units
  • Internet of Things
  • Internet of Vehicles
  • long short-term memory
  • machine learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'HDL-IDS: a hybrid deep learning architecture for intrusion detection in the Internet of Vehicles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this