Gypenosides mediate cholesterol efflux and suppress oxidized LDL induced inflammation in retinal pigment epithelium cells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a predominant cause of visual deficit in aged population. Abnormal accumulation of cholesterol, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), underneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contributes to the development of AMD. Gypenosides (Gyp) are glycosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and have demonstrated protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress. To determine the therapeutic potential of Gyp for AMD, we investigated its effect on cholesterol trafficking and metabolism and assessed the protective function of Gyp against oxLDL-induced damage in RPE cells. Cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and human serum was significantly increased in RPE cells treated with Gyp when compared to untreated control cells. Expression of cholesterol metabolism (CYP27A1, CYP46A1) and trafficking (TSPO, ABCA1 and ABCG1) genes was also markedly increased in Gyp-treated RPE cells. OxLDL-treated RPE cells had significantly increased cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation. There were marked increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB activation in RPE cells treated with oxLDL, while incubation with Gyp rectified these changes. These findings provide pharmacological evidence that Gyp has the potential to treat patients with early onset AMD by promoting cellular cholesterol removal from RPE cells and inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107931
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Volume191
Early online date10 Jan 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Jan 2020

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Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Cholesterol
Inflammation
Macular Degeneration
Gynostemma
Oxidative Stress
gypenoside
oxidized low density lipoprotein
HDL Lipoproteins
Glycosides
Reactive Oxygen Species
Pharmacology
Cytokines
Serum

Keywords

  • gypenosides
  • cholesterol efflux
  • oxidized LDL
  • inflammation
  • retinal pigment epithelium

Cite this

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title = "Gypenosides mediate cholesterol efflux and suppress oxidized LDL induced inflammation in retinal pigment epithelium cells",
abstract = "Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a predominant cause of visual deficit in aged population. Abnormal accumulation of cholesterol, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), underneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contributes to the development of AMD. Gypenosides (Gyp) are glycosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and have demonstrated protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress. To determine the therapeutic potential of Gyp for AMD, we investigated its effect on cholesterol trafficking and metabolism and assessed the protective function of Gyp against oxLDL-induced damage in RPE cells. Cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and human serum was significantly increased in RPE cells treated with Gyp when compared to untreated control cells. Expression of cholesterol metabolism (CYP27A1, CYP46A1) and trafficking (TSPO, ABCA1 and ABCG1) genes was also markedly increased in Gyp-treated RPE cells. OxLDL-treated RPE cells had significantly increased cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation. There were marked increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB activation in RPE cells treated with oxLDL, while incubation with Gyp rectified these changes. These findings provide pharmacological evidence that Gyp has the potential to treat patients with early onset AMD by promoting cellular cholesterol removal from RPE cells and inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.",
keywords = "gypenosides, cholesterol efflux, oxidized LDL, inflammation, retinal pigment epithelium",
author = "Lincoln Biswas and Zhihong Zeng and Annette Graham and Xinhua Shu",
note = "Acceptance in SAN AAM: 12m embargo",
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T1 - Gypenosides mediate cholesterol efflux and suppress oxidized LDL induced inflammation in retinal pigment epithelium cells

AU - Biswas, Lincoln

AU - Zeng, Zhihong

AU - Graham, Annette

AU - Shu, Xinhua

N1 - Acceptance in SAN AAM: 12m embargo

PY - 2020/1/10

Y1 - 2020/1/10

N2 - Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a predominant cause of visual deficit in aged population. Abnormal accumulation of cholesterol, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), underneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contributes to the development of AMD. Gypenosides (Gyp) are glycosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and have demonstrated protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress. To determine the therapeutic potential of Gyp for AMD, we investigated its effect on cholesterol trafficking and metabolism and assessed the protective function of Gyp against oxLDL-induced damage in RPE cells. Cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and human serum was significantly increased in RPE cells treated with Gyp when compared to untreated control cells. Expression of cholesterol metabolism (CYP27A1, CYP46A1) and trafficking (TSPO, ABCA1 and ABCG1) genes was also markedly increased in Gyp-treated RPE cells. OxLDL-treated RPE cells had significantly increased cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation. There were marked increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB activation in RPE cells treated with oxLDL, while incubation with Gyp rectified these changes. These findings provide pharmacological evidence that Gyp has the potential to treat patients with early onset AMD by promoting cellular cholesterol removal from RPE cells and inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.

AB - Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a predominant cause of visual deficit in aged population. Abnormal accumulation of cholesterol, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), underneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contributes to the development of AMD. Gypenosides (Gyp) are glycosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and have demonstrated protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress. To determine the therapeutic potential of Gyp for AMD, we investigated its effect on cholesterol trafficking and metabolism and assessed the protective function of Gyp against oxLDL-induced damage in RPE cells. Cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and human serum was significantly increased in RPE cells treated with Gyp when compared to untreated control cells. Expression of cholesterol metabolism (CYP27A1, CYP46A1) and trafficking (TSPO, ABCA1 and ABCG1) genes was also markedly increased in Gyp-treated RPE cells. OxLDL-treated RPE cells had significantly increased cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation. There were marked increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB activation in RPE cells treated with oxLDL, while incubation with Gyp rectified these changes. These findings provide pharmacological evidence that Gyp has the potential to treat patients with early onset AMD by promoting cellular cholesterol removal from RPE cells and inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress.

KW - gypenosides

KW - cholesterol efflux

KW - oxidized LDL

KW - inflammation

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