Occupational gender segregation remains an enduring challenge everywhere and a key contributor to the gender pay gap. Gender Impact Analysis tools are an important aid for evaluating the impact of social and economic policies from a gender perspective. In particular, gender budget analysis can help to show the impact of public spending and the extent to which it can reinforce or break down persistent gender inequalities. A key component of the Scottish Government’s employability strand of its Economic Strategy has been additional investment in the Modern Apprenticeship Programme. As part of a project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, the authors undertook an assessment of the Modern Apprenticeship programme in Scotland using Gender Disaggregated Public Expenditure Incidence Analysis. This is a gender budget analysis tool that shows the gender responsiveness of budgets and specific policies by assessing the distribution of expenditure on men and women. Analysis of the investment in different occupational frameworks and at different levels of training found that, despite an increase in women’s participation in Modern Apprenticeships, significant occupation gender segregation persists. Men predominate in the higher level training programmes and women in the lower level apprenticeships, resulting in a substantial gender gap in public investment in the Modern Apprenticeship Programme. This kind of approach to gender analysis has the potential to be an important tool for policymakers and practitioners to improve understanding of the implications of spending decisions and priorities and to contribute to developing strategies to tackle them in relation to gender, but also other protected characteristics such as disability, ethnic origin and age.
- gender employment labour market