Female salivary testosterone: measurement, challenges and applications

Emad Al-Dujaili, Martin Sharp

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


Testosterone (T) is one of the most important naturally circulating steroid hormones. Exerting both androgenic and anabolic activities it is secreted into the blood and in men is produced primarily by the testes. In women, by contrast, production occurs in the ovaries and particularly from peripheral conversion of the T precursors androstenedione, DHEA and DHEA-S (Burger, 2002). T is no longer regarded as a male only hormone, and similarly estradiol is no longer a female only hormone (Fausto-Sterling, 2000). While it is true that men generally have higher levels of T and lower concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone than women, all these sex steroid hormones play essential roles in both sexes (Ullis et al., 1999).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSteroids: From Physiology to Clinical Medicine
EditorsS.M. Ostojic
ISBN (Print)9789535108573
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • steroid hormones
  • female endocrinology
  • salivary testosterone

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