Extending the assessment of patient-centredness in health care: Development of the updated Valuing Patients as Individuals Scale using exploratory factor analysis

Martyn C Jones, Brian Williams, Janice Rattray, Stephen MacGillivray, Debbie Baldie, Abdul-Razak Abubakari, Joanne Coyle, Susan Mackie, Eileen McKenna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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To update and re-validate the Valuing Patients as Individuals Scale for use as a patient appraisal of received healthcare.

Healthcare in the United Kingdom and beyond is required to deliver high quality, person-centred care that is clinically effective and safe. However, patient experience is not uniform, and complaints often focus on the way patients have been treated. Legislation in United Kingdom requires health services to gather and use patients' evaluations of care to improve services.

This study uses scoping literature reviews, cognitive testing of questionnaire items with patient and healthcare staff focus groups, and exploratory factor analysis.

Data were collected from 790 participants across 34 wards in two acute hospitals in one National Health Service Health Board in Scotland from September 2011-February 2012. Ethics and Research and Development approval were obtained.

Fifty six unique items identified through literature review were added to 72 original Valuing Patients as Individuals Scale items. Face validity interviews removed ambiguous or low relevance items leaving 88 items for administration to patients. Two hundred and ninety questionnaires were returned, representing 37% response rate, 71 were incomplete. Thus 219 complete data were used for Exploratory Factor Analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation. This revealed a 31 item, three factor solution, Care and Respect; Understanding and Engagement; Patient Concerns, with good reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity in terms of gender. A shortened 10 item measure based on the top 3 or 4 loading items on each scale was comparable.

The Updated Valuing Patients as Individuals Scale is sufficiently developed to capture patient appraisals of received care.

The short scale version is now being routinized in real-time evaluation of patient experience contributing to this United Kingdom, National Health Service setting meeting its policy and legislative requirements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-76
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Issue number1-2
Early online date3 Jul 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


  • delivery of health care
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • general
  • healthcare quality assessment
  • healthcare surveys
  • hospitals
  • patient acceptance of health care
  • patient-centred care
  • quality of health care


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