Exploring human resource development: a level of analysis approach

Thomas N. Garavan, David McGuire, David O'Donnell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    58 Citations (Scopus)


    Levels of analysis perform an important function in framing research and practice in human resource development (HRD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of HRD from the individual, organizational and community/societal levels of analysis. The paper highlights both the distinctiveness and usefulness of each level of analysis, identifies tensions within and between them, and outlines differences in underpinning assumptions, characteristics of HRD provision and delivery of HRD interventions. By adopting this approach, the paper draws attention to variations in meaning, intent, content and practice with implications for developing both the theory and practice of HRD.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)417-441
    Number of pages25
    JournalHuman Resource Development Review
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004


    • human resource development
    • HRD
    • levels of analysis
    • method


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