Estimates of dry eye disease in Saudi Arabia based on a short questionnaire of prevalence, symptoms, and risk factors: the Twaiq Mountain Eye Study I

Saleh A. Alkhaldi, Khalid H. Allam, Mohammed A. Radwan, Laura E. Sweeney, Saleh Alshammeri*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of dry eye disease (DED) among the citizens of Saudi Arabia.
Methods: A cross-sectional prevalence survey was administered to 4066 healthy adults from the five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Initial estimates of the prevalence and associated risk factors of DED were calculated for the general population and then stratified by demographic characteristics such as age, sex, and location. DED was assessed by a short, validated dry-eye questionnaire.
Results: The overall prevalence of DED was 49.5 % (n = 2016), including 33.1 % (n = 1347) of participants who reported a previous DED diagnosis and 16.4 % (n = 669) who reported severe symptoms; 14.7 % reported severe symptoms and a previous DED diagnosis (n = 598). The DED prevalence among men was 49.8 % (n = 1005) compared with 50.2 % (n = 1011) for women. The multivariate model analysis confirmed the increased prevalence of DED in women (OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.30–1.88), those ≥60 years of age (OR 1.99; 95 % CI 1.60–2.81), those who had undergone refractive surgery (OR 1.79; 95 % CI 1.50–2.59), those having undergone acne treatment (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.34–1.97), contact lens wearers (OR 1.77; 95 % CI 1.40–2.48), those having taken antiallergy drugs (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.55–2.78) or antidepressants (OR 1.60; 95 % CI 1.14–2.44), and those who
reported computer use of >6 h per day (OR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.41–2.52).
Conclusion: Dry eye is a common disease among the Saudi Arabian population. Prevalence is found to be high and vary significantly across the country. DED could be attributed to dry weather, low annual rainfall, low humidity,
widespread use of air conditioners, air pollution, high temperature, and exposure to sunlight.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101770
JournalContact Lens and Anterior Eye : official journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Early online date6 Oct 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Oct 2022

Keywords

  • dry eye
  • prevalence
  • risk factors
  • Saudi Arabia

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