Ergonomic assessment of work-related musculoskeletal disorder and its determinants among commercial mini bus drivers and driver assistants (mini bus conductors) in Nigeria

Echezona Nelson Dominic Ekechukwu*, Erobogha Useh, Obumneme Linky Nna, Nmachukwu Ifeoma Ekechukwu, Ogbonna Nnajiobi Obi, Emmanuel Nwabueze Aguwa, Sussan Uzoamaka Arinze-Onyia, Ukachukwu Okaroafor Abaraogu, Victor Adimabua Utti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) is a leading causes of occupational injury and disability among drivers and workers in the transport industry. This study evaluated the ergonomically assessed WMSD and its determinants among Nigerian commercial mini bus drivers (BD) and mini bus conductors (BC) Method A total of 379 participants (BD = 200, BC = 179) were purposively sampled for this exploratory cross-sectional study. Participants' WMSD and work related variables were respectively assessed using the standardized Nordic questionnaire and a content-validated, Driving Work Station Assessment (DWSA) form. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially using chi-square and logistic regression. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results The participants were aged between 20 and 66 years, with a mean age of 33.26 ±10.76years (BD = 38.42±10.22years, BC = 27.50±8.13years); most of whom consumed alcohol (84.4%) and experienced severe job stress (73.4%). There was a high prevalence (95.8%; BD = 94.5%, BC = 97.8%) of WMSDs, the lower back (66.8%) and upper back (54.1%) had the highest regional prevalence of WMSD. The BC (BC vs BD) had significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of Neck (47.7% vs 21.5%) and upper back (80.4% vs 30.5%) WMSDs. Conversely, the BD (BD vs BC) had significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of low-back (85.0% vs 46.4%), knee (25.0% vs 9.5%), elbow (11.5% vs 3.9%), and wrist (10.5% vs 3.4%) WMSD. There was a significant association between WMSD and each of work duration (Χ2 = 11.634, p = 0.009), work frequency (Χ2 = 8.394, p = 0.039), job dissatisfaction (Χ2 = 10.620, p = 0.001) and job stress (X2 = 16.879, p = 0.001). Working beyond 4days/week (OR = 10.019, p = 0.001), job dissatisfaction (OR = 1.990, p = 0.031), constrained working postures (OR = 5.324, p = 0.003) and fatigue (OR = 4.719, p = 0.002) were the predictors of WMSD. Conclusion Job stress, work duration and work frequency, posture and fatigue are important determinants of WMSDs among mini bus drivers and their assistants in Nigeria. Ergonomics training intervention for this population is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0260211
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 7 Dec 2021


  • ergonomic assessment
  • musculoskeletal disorder
  • commercial mini bus drivers
  • Nigeria
  • transportation/instrumentation
  • prevalence
  • cross-sectional studies
  • fatigue/epidemiology
  • humans
  • middle aged
  • musculoskeletal diseases/epidemiology
  • logistic models
  • male
  • occupational diseases/epidemiology
  • Nigeria/epidemiology
  • job satisfaction
  • young adult
  • ergonomics
  • adult
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • aged

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Ergonomic assessment of work-related musculoskeletal disorder and its determinants among commercial mini bus drivers and driver assistants (mini bus conductors) in Nigeria'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this