This paper presents a comparative study of the performance of ferrate(VI), FeO4 2-, and ferric, Fe(III), towards wastewater treatment. The ferrate(VI) was produced by electrochemical synthesis, using steel electrodes in a 16 M NaOH solution. Domestic wastewater collected from Hailsham North Wastewater Treatment Works was treated with ferrate(VI) and ferric sulphate (Fe(III)). Samples were analysed for suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and P removal. Results for low doses of Fe(VI) were validated via a reproducibility study. Removal of phosphorous reached 40% with a Fe(VI) dose as low as 0.01 mg/L compared to 25% removal with 10 mg/L of Fe(III). For lower doses (/L as Fe), Fe(VI) can achieve between 60% and 80% removals of SS and COD, but Fe(III) performed even not as well as the control sample where no iron chemical was dosed. The ferrate solution was found to be stable for a maximum of 50 min, beyond which Fe(VI) is reduced to less oxidant species. This provided the maximum allowed storage time of the electrochemically produced ferrate (VI) solution.
- water treatment
- phosphate removal