Methods: The EFAS Score was developed and validated in three stages: (1) item (question) identification, (2) item reduction and scale exploration, (3) confirmatory analyses and responsiveness. The following score specifications were chosen: scale/subscale (Likert 0–4), questionnaire based, outcome measure, patient related outcome measurement. For stage 3, data were collected pre-operatively and at a minimum follow-up of 3 months and mean follow-up of 6 months. Item reduction, scale exploration, confirmatory analyses and responsiveness were executed using analyses from classical test theory and item response theory.
Results: Stage 1 resulted in 31 general and 7 sports related questions. In stage 2, a 6-item general EFAS Score was constructed using English, German, French and Swedish language data. In stage 3, internal consistency of the scale was confirmed in seven languages: the original four languages, plus Dutch, Italian and Polish (Cronbach’s Alpha >0.86 in all language versions). Responsiveness was good, with moderate to large effect sizes in all languages, and significant positive association between the EFAS Score and patient-reported improvement.No sound EFAS Sports Score could be constructed.
Conclusions: The multi-language EFAS Score was successfully validated in the orthopaedic ankle and foot surgery patient population, including a wide variety of foot and ankle pathologies. All score versions are freely available at www.efas.co.
- foot surgery patients