Development of a foot impact scale for rheumatoid arthritis

Philip S. Helliwell, Naomi Reay, Gill Gilworth, Anthony Redmond, Anita Slade, Alan Tennant, James Woodburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Foot problems in RA were explored by conducting qualitative interviews that were then used to generate items for a new foot impact scale. Further validation was undertaken following postal surveys and Rasch analysis. Analysis of the first postal survey (n = 192 responses) produced a 63-item binary response, 4-subscale instrument. The 4 subscales covered the domains impairment, activities, participation, and footwear. Following test–retest postal surveys and additional analysis, the instrument was reduced to a 2 subscale, 51-item questionnaire covering the domains of impairments/shoes and activities/participation. Initial results of these subscales indicate good psychometric properties, external validity, and test–retest reliability.

Original languageEnglish
JournalArthritis and Rheumatism
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2005


  • arthritis
  • foot impact scale
  • rheumatism


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