Development of a clinical risk score for pain and function following total knee arthroplasty: results from the TRIO study

Joanna Shim, David J. Mclernon, David Hamilton, Hamish A. Simpson, Marcus Beasley, Gary J. Macfarlane*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives: The aim was to develop and validate a simple clinical prediction model, based on easily collected preoperative information, to identify patients at high risk of pain and functional disability 6 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: This was a multicentre cohort study of patients from nine centres across the UK, who were undergoing a primary TKA for OA. Information on sociodemographic, psychosocial, clinical and quality-of-life measures were collected at recruitment. The primary outcome measure for this analysis was the Oxford knee score (OKS), measured 6 months postoperatively by postal questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the model. Model performance (discrimination and calibration) and internal validity were assessed, and a simple clinical risk score was developed. Results: Seven hundred and twenty-one participants (mean age 68.3 years; 53% female) provided data for the present analysis, and 14% had a poor outcome at 6 months. Key predictors were poor clinical status, widespread body pain, high expectation of postoperative pain and lack of active coping. The developed model based on these variables demonstrated good discrimination. At the optimal cut-off, the final model had a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 61% and positive likelihood ratio of 2.11. Excellent agreement was found between observed  outcomes, and there was no evidence of overfitting in the model. Conclusion: We have developed and validated a clinical prediction model that can be used to identify patients at high risk of a poor outcome after TKA. This clinical risk score may be an aid to shared decision-making between patient and clinician.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberrky021
Number of pages9
JournalRheumatology Advances in Practice
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2018


  • knee pain
  • osteoarthritis
  • total knee arthroplasty
  • prediction modelling
  • clinical risk score
  • model calibration
  • model discrimination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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