Determination of maximum level of EV penetration with consideration of EV charging load and harmonic currents

Chengke Zhou, Hang Wang, Wenjun Zhou, Kejun Qian, Shaoxin Meng

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In order to accommodate Electric Vehicles (EVs) charging demand which is expected to rise steeply in the coming years due to environmental concerns on global warming, it is important to determine the maximum EV penetration can be allowed without network upgrading and avoid overloading of Medium Voltage (MV) cables and distribution transformers in residential distribution power systems. Previous work on modelling and analysis of relationship between the temperature of MV cables and transformer with EV penetration level failed to consider the contribution of harmonic distortion in the demand. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to model the EV penetration and their effects on operational temperature of MV cables and transformers, with charging scenarios and harmonic currents taken into consideration. The method is simulated in a typical urban residential distribution system. The results show that EV penetration above 27.25 % with 6.6 kW EV chargers charging in uncontrolled domestic scenario will lead to 10 kV 400 mm2 three core cable overloading in the simulation with harmonic current taken into consideration. The result is 30.74 % if harmonic currents are ignored. The maximum allowable EV penetration of 35/10 kV 16 MVA and 10 kV 1250 kVA transformer is 50.22% and 26.19% respectively. If EVs charge in off-peak time, the cable and transformer can avoid overloading and the charging cost is lower.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012010
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • cables
  • charging batteries
  • electric power distribution
  • electric transformers
  • energy conservation
  • global warming
  • housing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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