Coupling of different nature base solutions for pedestrian thermal comfort in a Mediterranean climate

Hicham Fawzi Arrar*, Dalel Kaoula, Mattheos Santamouris, Amina Foufa-Abdessemed, R. Emmanuel, Mohamed Elhadi Matallah, Atef Ahriz, Shady Attia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The comfort sensation of pedestrians outdoors greatly impacts residents' happiness and standard of living. With the Earth's temperature expected to rise due to global warming, people's outdoor activities will be limited. Therefore, it's essential to intensify the evaluation of the effects of heat reduction strategies on outdoor thermal comfort in cities to enhance human well-being. At the same time, safeguarding historical and cultural heritage as required by Sustainable Development Goal 11. Across the literature, a limited number of studies have investigated the implementation of nature-based solutions as heat mitigation strategies in historical cities. This research investigates the influence of combining different nature-based solutions and scenarios. Combining NBS involves modifying the urban morphology, street and facade surfaces, and vegetation intensity to examine the cooling impact and enhancement of thermal comfort. The research methodology involves conducting in situ measurements in a traditional urban fabric in Algiers's old city fabric, which is classified as a world heritage site. The research assesses the climatic conditions during a typical summer heat wave using the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). Then, numerical simulations are performed using CFD software Envi-met for different scenarios. The results highlight that combining mitigation strategies shows limited improvement, with the outcome primarily influenced by one or two parameters. Also, In some instances, the use of nature-based solutions to reduce the heat has a slightly better cooling effect (ΔPET=16.8°C) compared to morphological reconstruction (ΔPET=15.2°C), yielding a difference of 1.6° C in PET values. The reported results offer practical guidance for stakeholders who renovate
traditional cities in Mediterranean climates to make informed decisions about urban heat mitigation methods. This research presents innovative perspectives by analysing nature-based solutions at two different levels. First, individually, to gauge their impact and by combining strategies of the same category. Then by combining the most favourable scenarios for an in-depth examination. The research also balances the reduction of urban heat with the
preservation of cultural heritage.
Original languageEnglish
Article number111480
JournalBuilding and Environment
Early online date4 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2024


  • outdoor thermal comfort
  • nature-based solutions
  • ENVI-met
  • traditional buildings
  • urban fabric
  • Traditional urban fabric
  • Mitigation scenarios
  • Outdoor thermal comfort
  • Nature-based solution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urban Studies
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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